Body Integrity Identity Disorder has been known by many different names over the years. This disorder has been known as "Apotemnophilia" and Amputee Identity Disorder. Although it has been known by many other names, professionals working in the field today know this particular disorder as Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Body Integrity Identity Disorder is a psychologically based condition in which an individual has a fantasy of having a missing limb. Because of this fantasy, an individual may opt to have a voluntary amputation in order to achieve this ideal image of themselves. This idealized notion of having a missing limb is persistent and often times will preoccupy the individual seeking the amputation.

There have been some occasions in which an individual will harm themselves or the limb that they seek to have amputated in order to hide the fact that they have this disorder. Harming themselves to the point in which an amputation is necessary and saying that it was an accident will conceal the fact that they have been suffering from this psychological disorder from the physician performing the amputation. It is said that this particular disorder is a result of a misfiring in the mapping coming from the brain to the various parts of the body. Therefore, not only is it deemed as a psychological disorder but a neurological disorder as well. Some may feel as though an individual is doing this for attention, but it is sincerely not deliberate.

Often times, an individual suffering from this disorder is sexually motivated for the amputation that they are seeking; however this is one of the rarest motivations that is reported. Today, no physicians or surgeons will treat this disorder by actually performing the amputation. Sufferers of this disorder sometimes use various prosthesis to mimic the amputations and fulfill their desires in this way.